Prepare for your Exam
Maintaining a positive outlook on life can be quite a task as one enters the common rigors of adult life.The attainment of happiness seems to become a fleeting dream for many who finish college and officially transition into adulthood. “When you’re young, other people orchestrate your enjoyment of life,” notes Barbara Fredrickson, PhD, a social psychologist and director of the Positive Emotions and Psychophysiology Lab at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Depression certainly has a negative impact on mood and daily functioning, but it can also greatly affect exercise adherence and performance among clients seeking personal training services. It is most likely caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental and psychological factors. Any type of depressive illness (e.g., major depression, postpartum depression, seasonal affective disorder, etc.) is a disorder of the brain.
A recent study conducted by the Department of Biology of Physical Activity at the University of Jyva¨skyla¨ in Finland investigated the effects of consuming carbohydrate (CHO) beverages of varying concentrations on the immune stress responses immediately following high-intensity long-distance running. A continuous 18-20 km run was performed by seven recreational runners at 75% of their VO2max, while consuming either a high-CHO beverage (7% CHO solution) or a low-CHO beverage (1.5% CHO solution).
A recent study conducted by the Department of Human Nutrition at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, examined the effects of supplemental docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on inflammation, soreness and other markers of muscle damage following eccentric exercise. Forty-one untrained men consumed either 2 g of DHA or a placebo each day, for a total of 28 days, prior to engaging in a bout of aggressive eccentric work focusing on the elbow flexors (biceps). The biceps were used because delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and muscle damage tends to be greatest when performing eccentric work with smaller muscle groups.
According to new research, herbal supplements may be more likely than medications to lead to death or liver transplantation. The study published in Hepatology, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease, showed that liver injuries caused by herbals and non-bodybuilding dietary supplements increased from 7% to 20% over a ten-year period (among a large U.S. subject group). Liver injuries caused by non-bodybuilding supplements were the most severe; occurring more often among middle-aged women and more frequently resulting in death (or liver transplantation) than bodybuilding supplements or conventional medications. It is estimated that nearly 50% of adult Americans consume herbal and dietary supplements, with prior reports suggesting that use is on the rise.
Processed foods are usually not associated with positive nutritional benefits. This is especially true when it comes to processed red meats, as they have also been repeatedly shown to increase the risk for major diseases and obesity. According to a new study published in Circulation: Heart Failure (2014), an American Heart Association (AHA) journal, men who eat only moderate amounts of processed red meat may have an increased risk of incidence of heart failure and death from heart failure.
Training in the heat is very stressful for all physiological systems of the body. Exercise creates an internal accumulation of mechanical heat energy (core temperature); exposure to additional heat from the environment makes thermoregulation increasingly difficult. Fortunately, the body has the ability to adapt to the stress of environmental heat during training with repeated exposure.
Berries contain various bioactive compounds and polyphenols which are believed to reduce the risk for certain types of cancers as well as hypertension. A recent study was conducted using twenty-five sedentary subjects, who ingested either a blueberry powder supplement (equal to 250 g of berries) or a placebo, each day for a total of six weeks.